For the less experienced breeders and other visitors we added a brief explanation of the (health-) terms that are used on this website. For more information please contact your breeders club or visit reputable health databases such as :
-OFA (America) offa.org
-Champdogs (UK) champdogs.co.uk
-KoiraNet (Finland) jalostus.kennelliito.fi
-Hunddata (Sweden) hundar.skk.se
-Dogweb (Norway) nkk.no
COI and AVK
COI (Coefficient Of Inbreeding):
The COI is a measurement of inbreeding; a percentage that shows the probability that both genes of a matched couple are identical. This calculation checks if any of the ancestors are related to each other. Typical values are: for brother/sister or parent/child 25%, half-brother/sister or grandfather/grandchild 12.5%, etc. The formula takes in account the distance of the ancestors. You can test your combination on the "virtual pedigree" page.The lower the result, the better. The breed-average in the UK is 9%. Ideally, the COI should be calculated over at least 10 generations with fully complete pedigrees. Please note that it is calculated in real-time, so the value only represents the information available in this database.
AVK (Ahnenverlustkoeffizient = Ancestor Lost Coefficient)
This formula works with a given number of generations and calculates the quotient of the existing ancestors and the maximum possible ancestors. This is the percentage of unique ancestors in the pedigree.
vWD (Von Willebrand disease type 1)
vWD is a inherited bleeding disorder affecting many breeds. Dogs affected with vWD have less than half of the normal level of Von Willebrand coagulation factor wich is essential protein needed for normal blood clotting. The disease is determined by one gene in an autosomal recessive manner, wich means that a dog has to carry two copies of the gene to be affected. Genetic testing of the Vwd will reliably determine whether a dog is a genetic carrier of the mutated gene. (Source - Pawprint Genetics)
Clear = the dog does not carry the gene responsible of vWD
Carrier = the dog carries only one copy of the mutated gene.
Affected = the dog carries two copies of the gene and is affected by the disease
Lens opacity which may affect one or both eyes and may involve the lens partially or completely. In cases where cataracts are complete and affect both eyes, blindness results. The prudent approach is to assume cataracts to be hereditary except in cases known to be associated with trauma, other causes of ocular inflammation, specific metabolic diseases, persistent pupillary membranes, persistent hyaloid or nutritional deficiencies.
Cataract can be classified by age of onset: Congenital Cataracts: These are cataracts that are present at birth.
Developmental (Early Onset) Cataracts: Developmental cataracts are those that develop early on in life.
Senile (Late Onset) Cataracts: The cataracts that occur in dogs over six years of age are called senile cataracts.
And by location of the opacity on the lens:
- Anterior Cortex
- Posterior Cortex
- Equatorial Cortex
- Anterior Sutures
- Posterior Sutures
Hereditary cataract in German Pinschers often occurs at a older age (over 5yrs). Reputable breeders test their breeding stock every year until at least 7 years old.
Disorder, where during the development of the eye remains of the blood vessels, which play a role in the nutrition of the backside of the lens, stay behind. Severity is expressed in grades: Grade 1: light form, often in one eye, small amounts of debris that remain unchanged. Grade 2-6 : increasingly severe types: both eyes effected, layer of coloured scar tissue situated on the back of the lens, lens can be malformed and can slowly show signs of cataract.
Breeder option codes on the Orthopedic Foundation For Animal (OFA database):
The breeder option codes indicate that we don't know enough about the genetic of the problem to state definitively that something is inherited. The recommendation is that two dogs with the same breeder option not be bred together.
A1 = Entropion
A2 = Ectropion
A4 = Ectopic Cilia
A5 = Eury/Macroblepharon
A6 = Imperforate Lacrimal Punctum
B1 = Cartilage Anomaly/Eversion
B2 = Gland Prolapse
B3 = Plasmoma/Atypical Pannus
C1 = Corneal Dystrophy - Epithelial/Stromal
C2 = Corneal Dystrophy - Endothelial
C3 = Pannus
C4 = Exposure/Pigmentary Keratitis
C5 = Secondary Keratitis - ChronicD1 = Uveal Cyst
D2 = Iris Coloboma
D3a = Persistent Pupillary Membranes - Iris to Iris
D3b = Persistent Pupillary Membranes - All Others
D4 = Iris Hypoplasia
E1 = Cataract - Suspect Not Inherited
E2 = Posterior Suture Tip Opacities
F1 = Persistent Hyaloid Artery
F2a = Vitreous Degeneration - Syneresis
F2b = Vitreous Degeneration - Anterior Chamber
G1 = Retinal Dysplasia - Folds (Breeder Option/Ineligibility is breed specific based on recommendations by the ACVO Genetics Committee)
G2 = Choroidal Hypoplasia
G3 = Coloboma
G4 = Retinal Hemorrhage
G5 = Micropapilla
G6 = Retinopathy (Breeder Option/Ineligibility is breed specific based on recommendations by the ACVO Genetics Committee)
Abnormal development of the hip joint can be found in any breed, including German Pinschers. It can cause lameness and pain in severe cases or produce no noticeable symptoms in minor cases. HD does not have a simple pattern of inheritance (it is a polygenic condition meaning it is controlled by several different genes) and whether an animal will develop HD is also influenced by external factors such as diet and exercise. There are studies stating that unilateral dysplasia (affecting only one hip) may be caused by external factors. HD can be diagnosed by x-rays around 2 years of age. Different countries use different grading to determine the severity of hip dysplasia :
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease affecting the heart muscle (the myocardium) which results in pump failure. With any type of cardiomyopathy, the heart and circulation are forced to work harder to maintain blood perfusion to the organs of the body. If it is severe enough, cardiomyopathy may disrupt the circulation, causing fluid accumulation in the lungs and body cavities (congestive heart failure), or may give rise to erratic, unstable rhythms to the heartbeat (arrhythmias) that are potentially fatal. The mode of transmission is unknown.
Pulmonic stenosis is a birth defect consisting of a narrowing in a region of the heart, the pulmonic valve (or adjacent area). A narrowing of the pulmonic valve increases the level of strain and workload on the chamber of the heart feeding into it, the right ventricle. Since normal blood flow requires heart valves to open fully for proper circulation, incomplete opening of the pulmonic valve (the hallmark of pulmonic stenosis) creates a "logjam" effect that disturbs blood flow and in the worst cases, may create life-threatening symptoms. Pulmonic stenosis appears to be inherited as a polygenic threshold trait. This means that more than one genetic aberration contributes to pulmonic stenosis; a genetic test for identifying it does not exist at this time.
Subaortic Stenosis :
Subaortic stenosis is a common, potentially devastating birth defect of the heart in dogs. It consists of excessive tissue that partially blocks the path for outflow of blood from the heart to the circulation, creating a partial obstruction. The result is an increase in strain on the main pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle, as the heart works harder to maintain a normal circulation. In severe cases, subaortic stenosis can be fatal, but in mild cases it produces no problems (no symptoms, no need for treatment) in the affected dog. Subaortic stenosis is almost always inherited, so all affected dogs, whether mild or severe, should be removed from the breeding pool.
Persistant Right Aortic Arch (PRAA):
PRAA occurs when persistent right aortic arch which develops instead of the left aortic arch that would normally become the permanent aorta, the main blood vessel leading from the heart. It causes varying degrees of narrowing of the esophagus, leading to digestive problems in weanling puppies.It do not cause problems in the circulation of blood around the body; however, entrapment of the esophagus and sometimes the trachea can cause regurgitation, unthriftiness, and often aspiration pneumonia. Inheritance is complex. This means a single genetic defect has not been identified that explains all cases, and a genetic test does not yet exist. Signs of this condition usually become apparent shortly after weaning, when a puppy begins eating semi-solid or solid food. The partial obstruction of the esophagus causes regurgitation, which is a passive reflux of undigested food, often in a tubular shape, back out the mouth.